This section describes the construction of a personal information web
on the subject of open citation linking. For each of the ten articles
included in my web, I describe how it fits into the structure and explain
why it is there.
A Web of Knowledge (WOK) citation search for "open citation linking"
returned but one result, Harnod and Carr's "Integrating, navigating,
and analyzing open Eprint archives through open citation linking (the
OpCit project)." This is curious, as citation linking is an area
of active interest in digital library research and one would expect more.
My concerns are validated by an immediate visit to LexisNexis which returned
125 hits from the past six months. When a Library Literature search turns
up Hitchcock and Brody's 2002 paper with a title that matches my WOK search
exactly, "Open citation linking: the way forward," I know this
WOK hunt is in trouble.
A little more investigation reveals that WOK includes D-lib references
when they are citations in a paper, but they do not index D-lib. For instance,
a cited reference search for "Lagoze C", includes nineteen citations
to his work appearing in D-lib, but none of these articles are included
in WOK. So we plunge in, leery but optimistic.
1 The initial WOK search for "open
citation linking" does deliver Harnod and Carr's paper (2000) discussing
OpCit, an open citation project working in Eprint archives, so off we
go. WOK show that Harnad and Carr cited fifty five references in their
article, and that four subsequently published articles have referenced
it. This forward-in-time linking, of course, is the very powerful hook
that makes citation databases so appealing. Since open citation work is
contemporary and the OpCit paper is three years old, we want to explore
the more recent literature, rather than examine what he cited. The four
Tough choices! We are drawn immediately to Christine Borgmans's work
for her eminent good sense and readability, but the OAI /OAI-MHP article
is pretty tempting as well. Thelwall's articles also sound interesting,
but unlikely to lead to open citation linking.
2 Decision time! Borgman's "Scholarly
communication and bibliometrics" gets the nod. (2002) Her article
cites a whopping 220 other papers, a rich lode for our future personal
web. She may not be part of the open link movement but the paper might
take us somewhere useful. In her book, "From Gutenberg to the Global
Information Infrastructure" she talks about the print versions of
the ISI citation databases; perhaps she's gotten hip to online citations
in the intervening years.
3 In a data structure surprise,
our linear search turns into a binary tree as we add Rusch-Feja's article
"The Open Archives Initiative.." to our list. (2002) If we can
find a way to link to Carl Lagoze and Herbert von Stempol we will probably
find some open citation articles. I'll add the first OAI hit I find and
assume the trip to Cornell will be a quick one. Brrr!
4 Following from #3, we find many
links that might take us towards open citation linking. OpCit grew out
of OAI, and a variety of Carl Lagoze's and Herbert Van de Sompel's articles
are cited in this paper. So close, yet so far away! In World of Knowledge,
there are many citations you can see but not follow; if the journal is
not indexed by WOK, they are dead ends in the citation trail. Of the thirty
six references Rusch-Feja cited, only six are linked in WOK; the rest
remain an unfulfilled temptation. WOK has failed me as a research tool.
none of the working links merit inclusion as #4 on my list.
Returning reluctantly to Borgman's "is cited by" brings us
closer to the present day with search papers published in 2003; one, called
"Visualizing knowledge domains" probably should have been read
before I wrote the Amazon Similarity Explorer! However, Cronin and Shaw
(2002) claim a spot in my personal list for their article, "Identity-creators
and image-makers: Using citation analysis and thick description to put
authors in their place," selected because it sounded like a description
of what Web of Knowledge was doing. Using a citation tool to do research
in citations, it is appropriate to have some recursion in our references.
None of the articles have anything to do with open citation linking.
5 Cronin and Shaw leads us to
many interesting papers. Moravcsik's "CITATION CONTEXT CLASSIFICATION
OF A CITATION CLASSIC CONCERNING CITATION CONTEXT CLASSIFICATION"
almost clears the cut on alliterative association alone, but another paper
going back in time from Shaw, White's "Authors as citers over time,"
grabs slot by describing differing citation patterns followed by authors:
some cite widely, many cite and re-cite the same core works.(2000) Hmm,
this paper sounds like this assignment; an ever tightening spiral of self-reference.
In the citation game, recursion wins over alliteration.
6 "Authors as citers over
time" has many interesting citations both forward and backward .
However, they do not seem to be related to open citation linking, our
original search topic, and the subject about which we are trying to construct
a personal web of knowledge. Going backwards, the linked articles are
mostly quite old, predating the whole notion of open citation databases.
An attempted WOK diversion ("Find related Records") fails to
provide anything sounding even vaguely like our target discipline. Going
forwards, we have but six citations to choose from; finally I decide our
sixth addition to our personal web, "Scholarly publishing in the
Internet age: a citation analysis of computer science literature"
by Goodrum, McCain, Lawrence, and Giles.(2001)
"Scholarly publishing" is an interesting look at the computer
science literature. It adds value to our personal web by discussing both
commercial and web citation. There is hope after all! This article has
7 links forward in time; five of them are sole or joint citations to articles
written by Thelwall, again! Thelwall's main research areas seem to various
aspects of the analysis of links on academic and journal websites. One
catches my eye because I read it last week in the library, and it mentioned
Brewster Kahle's Internet Archive and the Wayback Engine, so "Scholarly
use of the Web: What are the key inducers of links to journal Web sites?"
by Vaughan and Thelwall get the nod for the next link. (2003)
7 "Scholarly use of the Web
" was published quite recently (January 2003) and WOK has no forward
links from it. However, Thelwall cited forty five articles in it and some
of them are beauties! Bjorneborn and Ingwersen get the "Best new
academic discipline" award for "Perspectives of webometrics"
in which they discuss areas for research about the World Wide Web. We
happily scan "The anatomy of a large-scale hypertextual Web search
engine" by Brin and Page; yup, that's Google. Cronin's article "Bibliometrics
and beyond" pays homage to Eugene Garfield, who invented what became
WOK. There are many other Thelwall and Vaughn articles cited. However,
none of them have anything to do with open citations.
8 Well, if you've actually made
it this far, I have a confession to make. I'm cheating. I really wanted
to end up at Hitchcock and Brody's paper. I went searching through WOK
trying to find a way. Forward linking, backward linking, looking for a
link, a thread, anything. In frustration I dumped WOK and went to LibLit,
ProQuest, and WorldCat. I found another interesting article in D-Lib Magazine,
written by a manager at ISI (Atkins, 1999) that describes the implementation
of their citation service. Her description nicely melded with the flowchart
in "Modern Information Retrieval" describing how information
retrieval worked. (Baeza-Yates & Ribeiro-Neto, 1999) Her article,
"The ISI® Web of Science® - Links and Electronic Journals
How links work today in the Web of Science, and the challenges posed by
electronic journals" gets spot number eight in my personal web. In
a subtle irony, she has no citations in her paper. However, our #2, Borgman's
grand networker with 220 citations, includes Atkin's paper, so it is legitimately
part of our WOK web, even if it got their through surreptitious means.
Alas, this article is not included in WOK, so I cannot use it as a bridge
to Hitchcock's open citation article. However, reviewing the citations
I see in LibLit, if we back up to number 8, Brin and Page show up in the
reference list of Hitchcock and Brody's article. Wonderful irony: even
in the case of a poorly populated citation database, Google comes to the
9 Brin and Page's paper, "The
anatomy of a large-scale hypertextual Web search engine" gets the
number number nine spot. This is, of course, their description of Google.
I know their paper was cited by the open citation paper; the question
is whether WOK knows it or not.
10 Sigh. WOK doesn't list Hitchcock's
"Open citation linking: the way forward." as a paper citing
the Google creator's work. Knowing I must pick something, I'll select
Thelwall's "Commercial Web sites: lost in cyberspace?" purely
for the irony of a title describing a futile search through a commercial
citation database looking for literature on open citation linking.
And that completes the search phase of our intellectual web construction
in WOK. Despite our best efforts, we have found only one paper on the
research topic wished to investigate. All of the other links to this topic
were dead, since the journals in which this research is published are
not included in WOK. Cross references among the articles is covered in
the next section.